Discuss Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.


  1. Physiological Needs: These are the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter; the basic survival needs.
  2. Safety Needs: Once basic survival needs are met, one becomes concerned with safety needs, namely security, stability, and freedom from fear.
  3. Acceptance Needs: Once having satisfied the needs for security and safety, needs for love, friends, intimacy, and contact with others become apparent.
  4. Esteem Needs: Having some degree of love and contact with others, one becomes more concerned with feeling important, useful, competent, and needed by others.
  5. Self-Actualization Needs: These are the highest order needs. There is a shift from comparative evaluations to an internalized awareness and evaluation. Persons become more concerned with reaching their potential, personal growth, and progress.
  • One level must be met before an individual can be concerned about the next level.

Joiner, J. “Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability and Psychological Considerations.” In P. Deutsch and H. Sawyer (Ed.) A Guide to Rehabilitation. White Plains, NY: AHAB Press.

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